Reflecting on the Trajectory of IRD Research

 In Blog

By Ben Shaberman
Senior Director, Scientific Outreach & Community Engagement
Foundation Fighting Blindness

When I joined the Foundation Fighting Blindness as a science writer in 2004, I really didn’t know what I was getting into. I knew nothing about the retina, let alone the complex and diverse world of rare inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) that includes Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). But the research for treatments was cutting-edge and compelling, so I was excited to dive in and learn. 

My early assignments were writing about laboratory studies coming out of academic labs. There were virtually no companies in the IRD space and only one or two clinical trials underway for emerging therapies. But there were a lot of studies of genetically engineered mice and rat models of IRDs for gaining a better understanding of disease pathways and testing potential treatments.

Truth be told, I often wondered if and when rodent-tested therapies were really going to make it into human studies and out to the people losing vision. But the scientists conducting the research were mind-blowingly smart and innovative, so I figured they knew what the heck they were doing. With a master’s degree in poetry, who was I to judge? 

Fast forward about four years: I was in my hotel room in Fort Lauderdale – there for the annual Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology conference – when my manager called and told me three research groups just reported vision improvements in young adults treated with RPE65 gene therapies in Phase 1/2 clinical trials. That was the breakthrough we’d all been waiting for.

People, rather than animals, with severe vision loss were now seeing significantly better. It was the first time an IRD treatment had worked in humans. I will never forget the headline for the article I immediately wrote: “Now They See.” (Note: One of those RPE65 gene therapies later became LUXTURNA®, the first FDA-approved treatment for the eye or an inherited condition.)

After many years of painstaking work, our hope for treatments and cures had finally begun evolving into promise.

There have been several other aha! moments in the ensuing years, but I distinctly recall cathartic encounters at the 2019 American Society of Retinal Specialists in Chicago. As I perused the snack table during breaks (the accomplished snacking professional that I am), several representatives from biotechs developing IRD therapies – companies I’d never even heard of – came up to introduce themselves to me and tell me about their emerging IRD treatments. They didn’t know me or my role, nor had I previously known them; they were just eager to connect with someone from the Foundation Fighting Blindness to get on our radar screen. 

I realized then I couldn’t keep track of all the companies (dozens) focused on IRDs and clinical trials (40-plus) underway for potential IRD treatments. But being overwhelmed felt incredibly good, and it meant more good news likely was on the horizon for saving and restoring vision. 

While mouse studies are as critical as ever, I can’t remember the last time I wrote an article about one. That’s because most of my writing is now dedicated to reporting on advances, including encouraging vision improvements, being made in human studies.

Make no mistake: Much more work needs to be done before we eradicate the myriad IRDs affecting millions of people across the globe. And, of course, we cannot get more therapies across the finish line fast enough. But when I look at how incredibly far we’ve come since those early days of mice and rats, I have no doubt we are well on our way to breaking many more ribbons soon.